Культура и текст 2014 № 1
@ DOG – APE – WORM – SNAIL – HERMES
The article presents some theories regarding the origin of the internet @ symbol and its name. The article writer suggests a semiotic analysis of the sign images, explores its specific verbalization and conceptualization in different languages and cultures, identifies historical and cultural meanings, restores semantic chains linked to etymology, emblems and symbolism of @ sign, and traces the transformation of meanings realized in cultural codes.
Keywords: verbalization, iconic, conceptualization, cultural code, semantic field semantic potential; ape, dog, snail, worm, apple, małpa, caragol, chiocciola, kukac
Saint Petersburg State University
MYTHOPOETICAL SOURSES IN THE POETRY BOOK BY VYACHESLAV IVANOV “TENDER MYSTERY. ΛΕΠΤΑ”: SYMBOLISM OF LUNAR WORLD
The article analyzes a little-studied collection of verses by Vyacheslav Ivanov titled –Gentle Secret. Λεπηα. The subject of special attention is the lunar myth based on a system of mythological images symbolizing femininity. The writer considers V. Ivanov‘s strategy of mythologization, main themes, some motives and imagery.
Keywords: Vyacheslav Ivanov, Russian Symbolism, myth poetics, archetype, symbol, myth.
M. Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University
THE CHILD ARCHETYPE IN BRITISH NOVEL IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
This article is devoted to the analysis of novels, created by British writers such as W. Golding, D. Lessing, I. McEwan, G. Swift in the second half of the twentieth century. It is shown that child archetype gets new contents, is noted by ambivalent interpretation.
Keywords: archetype, British novel, W. Golding, D. Lessing, I. McEwan, mythologism, G. Swift.
Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House), St. Petersburg State University TOWARDS THE ISSUE OF MR. ASTLEY’S LITERARY GENESIS
Mr. Astley‘s comparison with many portraits of the English in English and French literature, as well as portraits of the English and Anglomania foreigners in Russian literature of 1830-1850s allows us to refine our understanding of this character and expand the list of his literary prototypes. It also shows that the figure of Mr. Astley goes back not only to the English and French, but also to Russian literature.
Keywords: character, an Englishman, a foreigner, a Russian novel, the prototype, intercultural, discourse.
Tver State University
MOSCOW CENSOR D.S. RZHEVSKY: TOUCHES TO THE PORTRAIT
The article is devoted to various aspects of D.S. Rzhevsky‘s activities. This censor‘s brief office term fell upon the last years of the reign of Russia‘s Emperor Nicholas I. With the use of archival and published documents the author not only clarifies Rshevsky‘s biographical facts, but also formulates the idea of his personality (his sivic position, social activities) as one of the – best people.
Keywords: a forgotten name, archival materials, civic position, censorship agency, era of reforms, the protection of peasants.
Russian State Hydrometeorological University
TOWARDS THE MAKING OF NIKOLAI GOGOL AS A WRITER
The article focuses on the early creative life of Nikolai V. Gogol, his then perception of the world, and the dialogue between Russian and Ukrainian cultures contributing to the uniqueness of his first literary experiments.
Key words: N.V. Gogol‘s early work, Russian and Ukrainian cultural dialogue, the historical tragedy, N.V. Gogol‘s idyll «Hans Kuhelgarten», Ukrainian Cossacks, the poetic story of Ukraine – Small Russia‘, «Evenings at the Farm near Dikanka Village».
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management
MORPHOLOGICAL POETICS: LINNAEUS, GOETHE, PROPP
The article discusses how in V. Propp‘s – Morphology of the Folktale the taxonomic construction principle comes into dispute with the organic theory of the structure. Research by J.B Robinet, A.N. Veselovsky, V.Y. Propp was centered on structural typology. Its essence is cognitive.
Keywords: morphology, classification, conceptual deficit, cognitive paradigm of knowledge.
E. I. Kulakovskaya
Altai State Pedagogical Academy
EMBLEMATIC PLOT OF B.EVSEEV’S SHORT STORY ‘KUTUM’
The article is devoted to the analysis of ontopoetics of B.Evseev’s short story ‘Kutum’ In particular, it deals with elicitation in the text of two initial ideas of ‘motion’ and ‘permeation of the Primary thing’, which are objectified in some interrelated diverse forms: ‘a period of existence’, ‘rapid reasoning’ etc.
Keywords: diverse form, the original meaning, a short story, a character.
Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography
MORTIFICATIO – ALCHEMICAL BOOK OF THE DEAD
The article discusses the phenomenon of alchemical Book of the Dead. The writer deals with the alchemical aspect of the problem of death. Thanatos is treated as phenomenon of alchemy. In the article a wide range of alchemical imagery serving to disclose and update Thanatos issue. The author considers the characteristics of mortificatio process, its stages, imagery and motives. The article analyzes various manifestations of alchemical Thanatos.
Keywords: Alchemy, Thanatos, Book of the Dead, Mortificatio.
Культура и текст 2014-2
BIRD’S EYE VIEW AT PUSHKIN MONUMENTS
The article presents the research of numerous online data regarding a monument to Pushkin as a fact in the world cultural space. The writer investigates such issues as specific conceptualization of “the Russian genius” with regard to both global and ethnic cultural traditions, semiotic significance of various Pushkin monuments, the viewers’ attraction to plastic language of sculpture, “failures” that capture stereotyping, and the “disclosures” associated with semantic shifts that create aesthetic effect. In the spotlight, there is the semantic load carried by details and motifs (a book, a quill pen, a pair of gloves, a bench), their origin, historical and cultural meaning.
Keywords: monument, Pushkin, Gogol, Shevchenko, a quill pen, a bench, mythologeme, cultureme, semiotics, semantic shift.
Instytut Filologii Polskiej i Lingwistyki Stosowanej, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach Institute of Polish Language and Literature and Applied Linguistics, University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce
WAYS OF AUDIENCE MODELING IN VISUAL AND VERBAL TEXTS OF FICTION
The article views details of restoration of communicative situations in various arts – poetry, painting, cinema, and reasons the dependency between representing “intratextual audience” (the public) and the writer’s intentions. The focus of the article is with intermedia translation, i.e. recreation of the archetypal situations interpreted in dual perspective – historic and universal. The article writer clarifies the meaning of such device as “the reduction of the public” on the material of two versions of paintings by the artist Konstantin Yuon.
Keywords: intratextual audience, communicative situation, motive, theme, intermediality
(Institute of Philology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk)
ATTRACTION OF A STORY AND A NOVEL (IVAN BUNIN OF THE 1920S)
The article provides a detailed analysis of Ivan Bunin’s story “Once upon a time in a faraway kingdom” and Chapter VI of Book Five in the novel “Life of Arsenyev”. Describing micropoetics of these texts, the article writer argues that they are resolved in a lyrical way. Complex correlation between various spaces as well as variety of other details give rise to combined modalities of these texts. In addition, the short story “Once upon a time in a faraway kingdom” is highly probable to be a pretext of Chapter VI of the novel.
Keywords: I.A. Bunin, poetics of small forms, lyrical form, lyrical prose, lyrical novel, lyrical theme, space.
(The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia)
SEMANTIC POTENTIAL OF NAMES IN THE RUSSIAN LITERARY TRADITION OF THE XIX-XX CENTURIES
The notion of “semantic potential of a name” allows of defining a special status for the term poetonym (poetic or literary name) in literary world of fiction, of showing its modeling character, the capacity to create its own text open to the intertextual relations.
Keywords: semantic potential of the name, the name of Belief (Vera) and its literary interpretations, meaning perspectives of the “name code”, a name and text ontology.
(Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk)
THE TOPOI OF A MENAGERIE AND A ZOO IN THE RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF 19TH – EARLY 20TH CENTURIES
The article writer analyses the topoi of a menagerie and a zoo and reveals the archetypical symbolism of these institutions in the Russian literature of the second half of 19th – early 20th centuries. Their most important meanings are symbols of artificial paradise, hell, and prison.
Keywords: zoo, topos, archetype, symbol, metaphor
(Institute of Philology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk)
“WELL DID HE KNOW THE BOOK OF STARS …” (N.A. Zabolotskiy and N.A. Morozov: notes on the subject)
The article indicates the sources of the two poems by Nikolai Zabolotskiy: “Spring in the Woods” (in the early version – “In the Woods”, 1935) and “Through Leeuwenhoek’s magical instrument” (1948). Both poems date back to “scientific poetry” by Nikolai Morozov, a scholar and Narodnaya Volya revolutionary (1854 – 1946). Morozov’s character, poetry and scientific interests must have attracted Nikolai Zabolotskiy through both their common acquaintances (Daniil Kharms, Veiamin Kaverin), and in connection with his interest in “people’s knowledge” (“people’s astronomy”, “people’s medicine”) as the prototype of a synthetic science of the future to come. Zabolotskiy’s many poems echo the works and poetry by Morozov and his circle of scientists, who united themselves within Russian Society of Universe Study Fans (R.S.U.S.F.) in 1910-1932. Even if N. Zabolotsky did not share Morozov’s scholarly views and those of his associates, he was well aware of their “mythogenic” potential and the capacity to be transferred to a poetic dimension. However, Zabolotskiy perceived Morozov only as “a brilliant amateur poet”. The two analyzed poems are the result of ironic pastiche of two poems by Morozov (“In the Chemical Lab” and “The World in a Water Drop”); they introduce their themes and subjects in the range of problems that were being solved in Russian poetry of the early XX century. Morozov, who had a particular interest in poetry-writing, on the reasons of his biography (over twenty years’ term in a fortress for his participation in the revolutionary terrorism) remained aside from shifts in the quality of national poetic language, that occurred between 1882 and 1905, when the scholar received a temporary freedom. His poetic works, although known for certain mastership of versification skill, have relation to those comic poetics, which often inspired poets of OBERIU circle (from Russian Объединение реального искусства; the Association for Real Art). Picking up and reinterpreting poet’s intentions contained in Morozov’s poems, Zabolotskiy makes an analytically profound choice of vocabulary, poetic meter, number of stanzas, and brings his poems to form a crystalline clarity, lacked in Morozov’s poetic experiences.
Keywords: scientific poetry, Nikolai Zabolotskiy, Nikolai Morozov, pastiche
M.V. STROGANOV, R.A. BOROVIK
(Tver State University)
FOOTBALL CHANTS AND SLOGANS AS A GENRE IN URBAN FOLKLORE
The paper hypothesizes that such genres as chants and slogans blend in traditional folklore, despite conceptions of some scholars who consider these genres nearing a football folklore, which in turn leads one to consider them as a variety of modern urban folklore.
Keywords: amoeba-like composition, urban folklore, chants, musical and rhythmic pattern, slogans, traditional folklore
Культура и текст 2014-3
E.G. MILYUGINA, M.V. STROGANOV
(Tver State University)
THE AUTHOR-TRAVELER’S PERSONALITY IN A NEW HISTORY TRAVELOGUE
In the focus of the article lies the personality of travelling writer and forms of its verbal representation in a New History travelogue. Done on the material of Tver region local texts, the study reveals the tendency of turning a travelogue from a documentary genre to an auto-documentary one.
Keywords: Russian culture, travel, traveler, travelogue, individual traveling experience, ego-text.
DANIJELA LUGARIĆ VUKAS1
(Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb)
WITNESSING THE UNSPEAKABLE: ON TESTIMONY AND TRAUMA IN SVETLANA ALEXIEVICH΄S THE WAR΄S UNWOMANLY FACE AND ZINKY BOYS
Perhaps following Michel Foucault’s notion from The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, where the French philosopher argues that Western societies became obsessed with the task of confessing and producing truth (which turned the Western man into „a confessing animal“), Shoshana Felman claims that „testimony [is] […] the literary – or discursive – mode par excellence of our times, and [that] […] our era can precisely be defined as the age of testimony“ [Felman, 1992, 5]. Defining it as a new form of literature, various scholars compare the genre of testimony with classical autobiographical and/or confessional forms of textuality and emphasize that testimonial literature significantly differs from previous textual forms in its appellative function. The unusually important role of the listener (or the witness of the testimonial speech act) rapidly alters the relationship between the subject (a witness) and the object (a listener) of a speech act. If we understand testimonial literature in a broader sense, i.e. as a form of textuality that refers to the abuse of human rights, violence and war, we could simultaneously consider it as a statement and as a declaration of the (un)speakability of a trauma. Considering the fact that literature in general and especially testimonial literature present a form of representation par excellence, while trauma illustrates exactly the opposite, i.e. a crisis in representation, testimonial literature is structured around extremely complex tensions between expressivity and speechlessness, the speakable and unspeakable and representative and non-representative. In that respect, the relationship between the subject (a witness) and the object (survivor’s recollections) of a speech act is distorted on another level. Traumatic experience is, namely, almost never represented in a form of a „simple memory“ [Caruth, 1995, 151]. Every testimonial act therefore inevitably faces the question of finding the adequate discursive medium for the transfer and articulation of that experience. That search often results in narrative strategies that are characterized by the fact that they govern the subject that pronounces them (as in the cases of uncontrolled/unwilling speech acts in cases when recollection of traumatic experience comes to its critical pinnacle). By means of a close reading of testimonial narratives by war survivors, collected by the Belarusian writer Svetlana Alexievich in her works The War’s Unwomanly Face (1985) and Zinky Boys (1991), my aim is to address and closely analyze the aforementioned tensions located inside the body of testimonial literature.
Keywords: testimonial literature, Svetlana Alexievich, cultural memory, autobiography, language of trauma
(Budapest, Eötvös Loránd University Institute for Slavic and Baltic Philology) RUSSIAN HISTORY OF EDUCATION – A HUNGARIAN READING
The article writer introduces to the reader a monograph of a Hungarian philologist and historian of pedagogy, Miklos Szabo (1912- 2011) “The history of Russian education (988-1917)” [Az orosz nevelés története (988-1917)] published in Hungarian in Budapest in 2003. The book was to appear sixty years before, in the early 1950s, but because of the ideological and political vicissitudes, the publication failed: the author abandoned his Marxist interpretation of the book subject, not agreeing to write the history of Russian pedagogy in a certain ideological light, as was required of him. The Marxist point of view was obligatory almost to the 1990s, and the book author, Miklos Szabo, due to his independent and critical thinking did not belong to officially encouraged scholars. Only in late 1990s did the writer obtain an opportunity to publish his book, though by the time he was advanced in years, but still spiritually active. A huge volume of 518 pages, containing 24 chapters, embraces nearly a thousandyear period of Russian culture dating to the era of Saint Vladimir to Nadezhda Krupskaya’s pedagogical activity and Bolshevik initiatives in the field of education. The book is special – it’s timeless: the author’s refusal from ideology and loyalty to his own moral principles opened to him freedom in his studies, taking him to eternal truths. Although all this data is still enclosed in the Hungarian language, but even in this case we can console ourselves with a Latin saying: habent sua fata libelli.
Keywords: spiritual development, history of pedagogy, culture, Miklos Szabo, education
(Petrozavodsk state University)
“FYODOR DOSTOYEVSKY ACCORDING TO GARP”: ON JOHN IRVING’S EXPLOITING SOME OF DOSTOYEVSKY’S MOTIVES AND IMAGERY IN HIS NOVEL “THE WORLD ACCORDING TO GARP”
The article is devoted to an American writer John Irving’s specific reception of Dostoevsky. It focuses on transformation of motifs of Dostoevsky’s “Eternal Husband” in Irving’s novel “The World according to Garp”, and points out the influence of Dostoevsky’s work in making an absurd character living in an absurd world.
(Altai State Academy of Culture and Arts)
RUSSIAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE MOTIVES IN A. IVANOV’S NOVEL “A GEOGRAPHER WHO DRANK A GLOBE AWAY”
The novel by А. Ivanov «A Geographer Who Drank a Globe Away» is interpreted through the prism of intertextuality play. In the article the author discovers in the analyzed novel motives of Russian classical literature that reveal a traditional trend for Russian mentality consisting in a spiritual search, finding a pathway, bearing a cross, devotion, submission and riot.
Key words: intertext, myth, motive, symbol, poetics, parody, prose, Russian classical literature.
(The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia)
HEART AND GRANITE. ON R. RILKE’S POEM “OVERNIGHT TRIP”
R.M. Rilke’s philosophical and poetic quest reflects some ideas of creative transformation of life, of a universal unity of all, stirring European artists from the time of Goethe. The resolve of the crisis in modern rationalist culture poet saw in a specific understanding of Russia and Russia’s cultural and historical mission.
Keywords: the poetics of R. Rilke’s poem “Overnight Trip”, mythology of St. Petersburg, a mystical image of the stone-of-a-city and natural organics of Russian expanses.
S A. GONCHAROV, O.M. GONCHAROVA
(The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia)
ETHNO-CULTURAL IDENTITY OF INDIGENOUS LITERATURE (the experience of a newly created written literatures of the Russia’s North, Siberia and Far East)
Understanding the phenomenon of newly created written literatures of the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, together with their identity and aesthetic value needs today a new conceptual approach that focuses on the notion of ethnic culture as communication. Indigenous literary word is considered in the article as an expression of ethnos’ communicative potential.
Keywords: ethnic identity, ethno-communicativity, communicative potential of culture, literary word and mythic-ritual tradition, ethnic aesthetic peculiarity
(Nizhny Tagil State Social and Pedagogical Institute) (Branch of the Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University)
TEXT AS AN OBJECT OF COMMUNICATING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY OF TEACHER TRAINEES
The author of the article treats text as a professional communicative systematic unit reflecting a fragment of reality in the verbal or another form, as viewed by its writer. The notion of pedagogical interpretation of the text is understood as a process of teacher trainees’ understanding and realizing comprehensive value-based meaning of the text information in a certain personal and professional context. Texts for pedagogical interpretation should render a typical situation of reality; they must be characterized by a certain positionality, contextuality and intertextuality, they should be problematic, have emotional and moral impact, be understandable, informative, simple and reflect the author’s intentionality. Engaging texts in professional education is a tool to develop students’ ability to interpret reality on the basis of correlation the writer’s value attitudes and the readers’ – the teacher trainees.
Keywords: text, pedagogical hermeneutics, pedagogical interpretation of text, polylogue.